Glossary of Terms

Plant Terminology and Abbreviations

‘Plant Speak’ Got Your Tongue?  Remedies Follow…


advanced generation hybrid…  Any group of hybrid plants that are generally beyond the F2 generation.  More simply, plants that have complicated backgrounds that may involve many different species or have multiple generations in their heritage.
adventitious…Growth that arises from roots.  Often seen in grafted peonies (unwanted) and in certain hybrids with Paeonia peregrina in their ancestry.  The characteristic can be desirable when wanting to propagate a plant, as blind roots can grow new plants.
anther…The male structure on flower that holds pollen.
AGLH…Advanced Generation Lutea Hybrid:  F1 or beyond generation crossings between Paeonia lutea hybrid x lutea hybrid or backcrosses to either P. lutea or P. suffruticosa.  Most commonly hybrid x hybrid.
ADS/AHS…American Daylily (Hemerocallis) Society: the organization that oversees worldwide daylily registrations and other activities relating to the genus.
ALM…Award of Landscape Merit: Paeonia cultivars chosen for superior ornamental value, overall appearance in the landscape and throughout the growing season, and reliable performance across North America.  An American Peony Society recognition.
APS…American Peony Society:  the organization that oversees worldwide peony registrations and other activities relating to the genus.
American suffruticosaPaeonia suffruticosa selections developed in North America, hardy, good growers on in the Northern United States.
Anther…The envelope-like structure that holds pollen in plants.
bicolor…Petals and sepals of different color.
bitone…Petals and sepals of different color tone.
blend…A number of colors mixed to create a multiple coloration.
branch(es)…Part of the daylily scape that departs from the main stem, highly variable in length and size.  We list the number of major branches, not Y’s and minor splits (many people count these as branches.
carpel…Finger-like reproductive structures found after peony complete bloom.   Carpels contain the ovaries in which peony seeds may develop.
Clematis…Prune 1:   Generally bloom on previous year’s growth and can be pruned after flowering, if needed.  Do not cut to the ground unless stems are dead.
Clematis…Prune 2:  This group often reblooms during summer months.  First bloom is on previous year’s growth and then later on new growth.  May be pruned lightly in spring after growth has begun and later after the first bloom to shape plants.   Do not cut to the ground unless stems are damaged or dead.
Clematis…Prune 3:  These plants bloom on new growth.  Trim plants close to the ground in early spring as new leaf buds begin to show.
CMO…Cold morning opener, often used in the daylily world to describe flowers that open completely in cool morning temperatures
crown…The growing point that is attached to the root system.
Chinese suffruticosaPaeonia suffruticosa selections developed in China, maybe problematic to grow in the United States and Europe.  Not a species, but rather a man made hybrid swarm.
diploidChromosomes that occur in pairs (normal configuration).  Generally useful for hybridizers, as diploids can be crossed with diploids, but not other configurations.
dormant…Characteristic of a plant to ‘rest’ during the winter (best habit for plants in Wisconsin).
DEF…Day end flower;  Often used to describe a daylily flower that lasts through the day and retains its beauty late in the day.
DF…Double Fan, describes unit size of daylily (2 blooming size growths on a root system).
E…(early) Cultivar blooms in the early part of the bloom season for a given genus.  Most daylilies with designation bloom with mid season cultivars in Wisconsin, due to our abbreviated growing season.
EE…(extra early) Cultivar blooms in the earliest part of the bloom season for a given genus (June daylilies in Wisconsin).  Very few will bloom this early in Wisconsin.
EM…(early mid) Cultivar blooms just before main bloom period for a given genus.  Most daylilies with designation bloom with mid season cultivars in Wisconsin, due to our abbreviated growing season.
EMO…Early morning opener; Often used to describe a daylily flower that opens completely early in the morning.
evergreen…Characteristic of a plant to continually grow (a poor habit for plants in Wisconsin–this may include plants designated ‘semi-evergreen’).
filament…A stalk-like structure holding anthers at their very top in the genus Paeonia.  Sometimes referred to as a sub assembly of a stamen.
flare…Showy elongated dark colored streaks of varying widths originating at the center of a peony flower’s petals which flow outward (characterized in most Rockii hybirds).
genus…The first name in a scientific name attached to an organism and designates a closely related group.   Example:  Paeonia wendelboi;  Paeonia is the genus.
GT…Green Throat, describes the center of a daylily flower.  A green throat often creates an excellent color contrast.
HBC…High Bud Count, describes a higher than average number of flowers per scape on a daylily.
Hemerocallis…The genus that includes daylilies.
herbaceous…stems and foliage die to the ground at the end of the growing season.
hybrid…A plant that has parents that are from different species or resulting hybrids.  Plants bred to other plants with different traits may also be referred to as hybrids.
H?…Plant may not be hardy or needs mulching to perform in northern climates.
IntersectionalA hybrid that involves parents from two sections of the genus Paeonia.  Commonly known as ‘Itoh hybrid’.  Basically a cross of herbaceous x woody Paeonia.
Japanese suffruticosaPaeonia suffruticosa selections developed in Japan, good plants for American and European gardens.
L…(late) Cultivar blooms in the late part of the bloom season for a given genus (early to mid August for daylilies).
lactifloraPaeonia species that has been selectively bred for hundreds of years to create a wide range of flower characteristics.  Typically the most common type of peony grown.  Valued for its cutflower properties and fragrance in some cultivars.
lutea hybridWoody Paeonia cross of P. delavayi (lutea) x suffruticosa.  Note:  Paeonia delavayi was once taxonomically referred to as Paeonia lutea, thus any plant with P. delavayi in its heritage is called a ‘lutea hybrid’.  Many Europeans still refer to the yellow form of P. delavayi as P. lutea.
M…(mid) Cultivar blooms during the major flowering period for a given genus (middle to late July for daylilies in Wisconsin).
ML…(mid late) Cultivar blooms just after the main flowering period for a given genus (late July to early August for daylilies in Wisconsin).
Paeonia…In taxonomy, Paeonia is the genus name for peonies.   A genus could be compared to our last name, which we share with our close relatives.
petiole…The stalk that attaches the leaf blade to the stem. Outgrowths appearing on each side of the petiole in some species are called stipules. 
polychrome…A blend of similar colors, often pink, yellow and gold.
RE…(recurrent) Cultivar produces a second round of blooms (this trait often is not expressed in northern Wisconsin due to our short growing season).  We seldom list plants as recurrent or rebloomers.
Rockii hybrid…a cross of Paeonia rockii or one of it hybrids with a suffruticosa, rockii hybrid or rockii cultivar.  Paeonia rockii is a woody peony species from China with very hardy stems.
scape…Stem on a daylily that holds the flowers.
semi-evergreen…A foliage designation in daylilies that falls between dormant and evergreen.  These typically act as evergreens in Northeast Wisconsin.
sheath…A short lived structure that wraps the young carpels found on woody peonies and a few other groups within the genus Paeonia.
species…A group of living organisms consisting of similar individuals capable of exchanging genes or interbreeding.  For practical purposes, they are plants that occur naturally in the wild and are the basis for our many hybrids.
stamen…Often elongated male structure that holds anthers and pollen at its top.
SF…Single Fan, describes unit size of daylily (1 blooming size growth on a root system).  We will ship double fans if available, even when plants are designated as double fans.
stigma…Receptive female structure on a flower.
stoloniferous…A growth habit of a stem that grows at or near the surface.  Often called a ‘runner’.
tetraploid…Chromosomes that occur in doubled pairs.  Generally useful for hybridizers, as tetraploids can be crossed with tetraploids, but not other configurations.  Tetraploids tend to be larger plants and have heavier thicker structures throughout.  Flowers can be larger, have heavier substance and produce more unusual floral variations.
UF…(unusual form)  Daylily have a classification system that includes many flower forms including: spiders, crispate, spatulate, quilled, cascading, etc..  See the American Daylily Society’s ‘Unusual Form’ page.
VL…(very late) Cultivar blooms in the latest part of the bloom season for a given genus (mid to late August for daylilies in Wisconsin).
woody…Stems are persistent throughout the year.
YGT…Yellow Green Throat, describes the center of of a daylily’s flower color.
YT…Yellow Throat, describes the center of the a daylily’s flower color.
*…Indicates tetraploid, all others are presumed diploid.
¡…presumed tetraploid.